More and more people want to see the world’s tallest peak
China has closed the base camp on its side of Mount Everest to visitors who don’t have climbing permits.
Authorities have resorted to the unusual move to deal with the mounting waste problem at the site.
The ban means tourists can only go as far as a monastery slightly below the 5,200m (17,060ft) base camp level.
More people visit the mountain from the southern side in Nepal, but over the past years numbers have been rising steadily on the Chinese side as well.
The Chinese base camp, located in Tibet, is popular as it is accessible by car – whereas the Nepalese camp can only be reached by a hike of almost two weeks.
The world’s highest peak has been struggling with escalating levels of rubbish for years, as the number of visitors rises.
The Chinese Mountaineering Association says 40,000 visited its base camp in 2015, the most recent year with figures. A record 45,000 visited Nepal’s base camp in 2016-7 according to Nepal’s Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation.
Tourists are still allowed to go as far as the Rongbuk monastery
Ordinary tourists will only be banned from areas above Rongbuk monastery, which is around 5,000m above sea level, according to China’s state news agency Xinhua.
Mountaineers who have a permit to climb the 8,848m peak will still be allowed to use the higher camp.
In January, authorities announced that they would limit the number of climbing permits each year to 300.
On Chinese social media, claims have spread in recent days that its base camp will be permanently closed to tourists – but Xinhua cited officials denying that.
The temperature and high altitude make clean-up efforts on Everest a tough task
The official announcement about the closure was made in December, on the website of the Tibetan authorities.
It stated that three clean-up operations last spring had collected eight tonnes of waste, including human faeces and mountaineering equipment climbers had left behind.
This year’s clean-up efforts will also try to remove the bodies of mountaineers who have died in the so-called death zone above 8,000m, where the air is too thin to sustain life for long.
Due to the cold and high altitude, these bodies often remain on the mountain for years or even decades.
The bomber used a vehicle packed with explosives to ram a convoy of 78 buses carrying Indian security forces on the heavily guarded Srinagar-Jammu highway about 20km (12 miles) from the capital, Srinagar.
The bomber is reported to be Adil Dar, a high school dropout who left home in March 2018. He is believed to be between the ages of 19 and 21.
Soon after the attack, Jaish-e-Mohammad released a video in which a young man identified as Dar spoke about what he described as atrocities against Kashmiri Muslims. He said he joined the group in 2018 and was eventually “assigned” the task of carrying out the attack in Pulwama.
He also said that by the time the video was released he would be in jannat (heaven).
Dar is one of many young Kashmiri men who have been radicalised in recent years. On Thursday, main opposition leader Rahul Gandhi said that the number of Kashmiri men joining militancy had risen from 88 in 2016 to 191 in 2018.
India has been accused of using brutal tactics to put down protests in Kashmir – with thousands of people sustaining eye injuries from pellet guns used by security forces.
‘It feels like my son is always with me’
by Arvind Chhabra, BBC News Punjabi
Kulwinder Singh was killed in the attack on Thursday
“I’m proud of my son. He has sacrificed himself for his family,” says Darshan Singh, whose son, Kulwinder, died in the suicide attack in Kashmir.
Mr Singh, who lives in Rauli village in Punjab, last saw Kulwinder on 10 February, before he returned to Kashmir at the end of his vacation.
His son was 26 and planned to marry in November: “We talked of only his wedding. We had finalised the caterers and the venue.”
“It feels like my son is always with me,” Mr Singh says, pointing to the jacket he is wearing. It belonged to Kulwinder and has his name embroidered on it.
Darshan Singh says his son was like a friend to him and he had been waiting to see him come home with his bride. “I didn’t know we would instead be waiting for his body.”
What’s the background?
There have been at least 10 suicide attacks since 1989 but this is only the second to use a vehicle.
Prior to Thursday’s bombing, the deadliest attack on Indian security forces in Kashmir this century came in 2002, when militants killed at least 31 people at an army base in Kaluchak, near Jammu, most of them civilians and relatives of soldiers.
Why has 2018 seen a spike in violence in Indian-administered Kashmir?
The latest attack comes amid a spike in violence in Kashmir that came about after Indian forces killed a popular militant, 22-year-old Burhan Wani, in 2016.
More than 500 people were killed in 2018 – including civilians, security forces and militants – the highest such toll in a decade.
India and Pakistan have fought three wars and a limited conflict since independence from Britain in 1947 – all but one were over Kashmir.
What is Jaish-e-Mohammad?
Started by cleric Masood Azhar in 2000, the group has been blamed for attacks on Indian soil in the past, including one in 2001 on the parliament in Delhi which took India and Pakistan to the brink of war.
Maulan Masood Azhar founded JeM in 1999
Most recently, the group was blamed for attacking an Indian air force base in 2016 near the border in Punjab state. Seven Indian security personnel and six militants were killed.
India, the UK, US and UN have all designated it a “terrorist” organisation and it has been banned in Pakistan since 2002.
But Masood Azhar remains at large and is reportedly based in Bahawalpur in Pakistan’s Punjab province. India has demanded his extradition but Islamabad has refused, citing a lack of proof.
He was arrested in Srinagar in 1999 but India released him as a part of a hostage exchange after an airliner was hijacked.
How have others reacted?
Mr Gandhi and two former Indian chief ministers of Jammu and Kashmir condemned the attack and expressed their condolences.
The attack has also been widely condemned around the world, including by the US and the UN Secretary General.
The White House called on Pakistan to “end immediately the support and safe haven provided to all terrorist groups operating on its soil”.
Ai Nakajima and Tina Baumann are married in Germany, but Japan doesn’t recognise that
Thirteen same-sex couples across Japan are taking legal action on Thursday against the government, demanding the right to get married.
They are suing for symbolic damages arguing that being barred from marriage violates their constitutional rights.
Should the courts agree, it would mean same-sex unions will have to be permitted in future.
Japan is the only G7 country that does not allow gay marriage but surveys suggest strong support for the case.
The country’s constitution says that “marriage shall be only with the mutual consent of both sexes” and authorities have until now always read this as not permitting same-sex marriage.
But the lawyers for Thursday’s plaintiffs counter that the text of the constitution was to prevent forced marriages and there isn’t anything in it that explicitly prohibits same-sex marriage.
They argue in turn that the refusal to allow same-sex marriage is a violation of the constitutional right that all people should be equal under the law.
‘A very conservative society’
The 13 couples will all file their case on Valentine’s Day, in different cities across the country.
One of the couples is 40-year old Ai Nakajima from Japan and 31-year old German, Tina Baumann.
The two have been together since 2011 when they met in Berlin. After living a few years in Germany, they then moved to Japan. But living as a same-sex couple was very different in the two countries.
“Japanese society is by nature very conservative,” Ms Nakajima told the BBC.
Many of their friends don’t dare to out themselves as homosexual and hide their partners from families and even friends.
Japan is a very traditional country but polls indicate that the vast majority of younger Japanese support same-sex marriage.
Since 2015, some cities issue certificates for same-sex couples yet those are not legally binding and merely call on businesses to accord equal treatment.
In 2015 the Shibuya ward was the first to issue same-sex certificates
“So while among younger people there is an overwhelming support for gay marriage, politicians tend to be older and are very hesitant when it comes to changing things,” Ms Nakajima says.
The group knows the court cases will of course draw public attention to their struggle but there is genuine hope they might be successful.
“We are prepared to take this to the supreme court,” Ms Nakajima explains. “If we have to take that route, it might take more than five years.”
German marriage rejected
The two got married in Germany and soon afterwards applied for that marriage to be recognised in Yokohama where they currently live.
As they had expected, the German marriage was not recognised.
For the two of them, this means concrete problems – Ms Baumann is currently studying but once she graduates will require a new visa to be allowed to stay in the country.
For a married couple such a visa would easily be issued to a spouse – but that’s not the case for same-sex partnerships.
The problems don’t stop there though, the two women explain.
“In Germany it’s a lot easier to come out and just live the way you choose to as an individual,” Ms Baumann says.
“In Japan however, gender roles are a lot more traditional and a woman is expected to marry and have children. In many cases, it’s even still expected that a woman will stop working once she becomes a mother.”
The two say life as a gay couple is very different in Germany and Japan
Many of their friends don’t dare to talk openly to their families for fear of being outcast.
“It’s almost like you’re being banished,” Ms Nakajima says. “And it affects many aspects of your life. If you for instance want to rent a house as a same-sex couple, you might be rejected because of this. Or you might not be able to take out a loan as couple if you want to buy a property together.”
“It’s really like in almost every situation that we are facing problems,” she says.
“We have received some criticism from the public that we should just move to Germany rather than make trouble here in Japan,” the German says.
Yet in the end, they decided that standing up for what they believe in was more important.
Thursday’s lawsuit will likely be only the first step in a long process to eventually allow same-sex couples to get married in Japan.
According a curriculum vitaeposted on jobs website Indeed, Ms Witt joined the Air Force in December 1997. Stationed at Offutt Air Force Base, she worked as a Persian-Farsi language specialist.
She later served as a Special Agent at the Air Force’s Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) from November 2003, based at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. On its website, the AFOSI says its mission is to “identify, exploit and neutralize criminal, terrorist and intelligence threats to the Air Force, Department of Defense and U.S. Government.”
A spokesperson for the US Air Force told the BBC she was discharged in June 2008 with the rank of Technical Sergeant. She received numerous decorations including the Air Medal, awarded for “single acts of heroism or meritorious achievements.”
Ms Witt left the US military in May 2008 with the rank of Technical Sergeant. For the next seven months, she worked as a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton in Maryland, consulting on “Iranian subject matter” and providing “language and cultural specialisation.”
From November 2008 to August 2010, she worked as a Middle East Desk Officer at another contractor, Chenega Federal Systems, in Virginia. During this role Ms Witt says she “supervised, controlled, and coordinated the execution of highly sensitive counterintelligence operations against foreign intelligence services worldwide.”
Later, from December 2010 to May 2011, Ms Witt worked in Washington with Amidest. During her time with the non-profit, she “submitted applications for 60 Iraqi Fulbright candidates to multiple U.S. universities.”
According to her CV, she holds a Bachelors degree, from the University of Maryland, a Masters from George Washington University, and a qualification in Persian-Farsi from the Defense Language Institute.
She claims to have lived and worked within countries including Iraq, Qatar, Jordan, Turkey, the UAE., Tajikistan, and Iran.
After this, details of her activities and whereabouts are unclear.
In an undated missing persons declaration the FBI says Witt worked as an English teacher in either Afghanistan or Tajikistan and had out of contact since 2013.
According to her indictment, Ms Witt travelled to Iran in February 2012 to attend a conference organised by the New Horizon Organization. The Justice Department says the event is sponsored by Iran’s Revolutionary and seeks to promote “anti-American propaganda.”
Ms Witt allegedly had an “ideological” turn and defected to Iran in August 2013.
Returning to the country that month, she was provided with housing and computer equipment went on to disclose highly-classified information to Iranian officials. The information included details of her former colleagues within the US intelligence community.
While in Iran, she also allegedly converted to Islam during a television segment after identifying herself as a US veteran, and delivered several broadcasts in which she criticised the US.
In one article , published by state-run Press TV, Ms Witt attacked “a prevailing culture of tolerance for sexual harassment” within the US armed forces.
A warrant has been issued for Ms Witt, who remains at large.
Chinese state media have released a images appearing to show a Uighur musician previously reported to have died in a detention camp.
The video, dated 10 February, features a man said to be Abdurehim Heyit stating that he is in “good health”.
Turkey earlier called on China to close the camps following reports of his death. Up to a million Uighurs are reportedly being detained.
Some Uighurs have questioned the video’s authenticity.
Nury Turkel, chairman of the US-based Uyghur Human Rights Project, told the BBC that some aspects of the video were “suspicious”.
The Uighurs are a Muslim Turkic-speaking minority based in the north-western Xinjiang region of China, which has come under intense surveillance by Chinese authorities. Their language is close to Turkish and a significant number of Uighurs have fled to Turkey from China in recent years.
What is in the video?
The video was released by China Radio International’s Turkish-language service, which said Turkey’s criticism of China was unfounded.
In it, Mr Heyit appears to say he is “in the process of being investigated for allegedly violating national laws”.
What did Turkey say?
Its foreign ministry had said that detained Uighurs were being subjected to “torture” in “concentration camps”.
“The reintroduction of concentration camps in the 21st Century and the systematic assimilation policy of Chinese authorities against the Uighur Turks is a great embarrassment for humanity,” Mr Aksoy said.
He called on UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres “to take effective steps to end the human tragedy” there.
China has described the comments as “completely unacceptable”.
China’s hidden camps
How unusual is the Turkish stance?
So far few Muslim-majority countries have joined in public international condemnation of the allegations. Analysts say many fear political and economic retaliation from China.
However Mr Turkel said the release of the video showed that the Chinese government did respond to public pressure.
“The Chinese government responds to Turkey because of the influence it has in the Muslim world,” he said, adding that UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres had been “awfully quiet” on the issue of detentions in Xinjiang.
“The ball is in the Chinese government’s court. They detained Heyit. They detained 10% of the Uighur population. They are trying to tell the world there is no abuse and these are just so-called vocational training centres. It’s their responsibility to prove the video is authentic,” he said.
Mr Turkel said the Chinese government was capable of doctoring video because of the “technological advantages it has”.
“With today’s technology it is possible to create a video presentation. It’s not that difficult,” he said.
What do we know about Heyit’s fate?
Amnesty International has said it is very concerned about reports of his death.
He was a celebrated player of the Dutar, a two-stringed instrument that is notoriously hard to master. At one time, he was venerated across China. He studied music in Beijing and later performed with national arts troupes.
Mr Heyit’s detention reportedly stemmed from a song he had performed titled Fathers. It takes its lyrics from a Uighur poem calling on younger generations to respect the sacrifices of those before them.
But three words in the lyrics – “martyrs of war” – apparently led Chinese authorities to conclude that Mr Heyit presented a terrorist threat.
Who are the Uighurs?
The Uighurs make up about 45% of the population in Xinjiang.
They see themselves as culturally and ethnically close to Central Asian nations.
In recent decades, large numbers of Han Chinese (China’s ethnic majority) have migrated to Xinjiang, and the Uighurs feel their culture and livelihoods are under threat.
Xinjiang is officially designated as an autonomous region within China, like Tibet to its south.
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In a palace statement broadcast on all Thai TV networks, the king said: “Even though she has relinquished her royal titles in writing, she maintained her status and carried herself as a member of the Chakri dynasty.
“Involvement of a high-ranking member of the royal family in politics, in whatever way, is considered an act that defies the nation’s traditions, customs and culture, and therefore is considered extremely inappropriate.”
The statement cited a passage of the constitution that says the monarchy should maintain political neutrality.
Hours earlier, Princess Ubolratana defended her decision to run for office.
In an Instagram post, she reiterated that she had relinquished all her royal titles and now lived as a commoner.
She said she wanted to exercise her rights as an ordinary citizen by offering her candidacy for prime minister. She said she would work with all sincerity and determination for the prosperity of all Thais.
A miscalculation by military’s opponents?
Analysis by Jonathan Head, BBC News Bangkok
The entry of flamboyant Princess Ubolratana’s into the political fray threatened to upend an election in which the military government has stacked the odds in its own favour through a new constitution and electoral system.
Now King Vajiralongkorn has issued an unusually strong statement censuring the nomination of his sister.
The decision to nominate the princess now looks like a grave miscalculation.
It will weaken the pro-Shinawatra faction seeking to push the military out of politics, which until now seemed likely to win the largest share of seats in the new parliament. It also underlines the power and influence of the new king, whose word on matters of state that he believes concern him is always final.
Who is Princess Ubolratana Mahidol?
Born in 1951, Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya Sirivadhana Barnavadi is the oldest child of Thailand’s beloved late King Bhumibol Adulyadej. He died in 2016.
She attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and after marrying an American in 1972 she gave up her royal title. After her divorce she returned to Thailand in 2001 and once again started participating in royal life.
The princess engages actively in social media and has also starred in several Thai movies.
She has three children, one of whom died in the 2004 Asian tsunami. The other two now also live in Thailand.
The princess has registered for the Thai Raksa Chart party, which is closely linked to Mr Thaksin.
Why is the election important?
It will be the first vote since current Prime Minister Prayuth Chan-ocha took power in 2014, overthrowing the democratic government and ousting ex-PM Yingluck Shinawatra, the younger sister of Mr Thaksin.
Both Mr Thaksin and his sister live in self-imposed exile but remain a powerful force in Thai politics, with many in the country remaining loyal to them.
In 2016, Thais voted to approve a new constitution created by the country’s military leaders, which was designed to perpetuate military influence and block Mr Thaksin’s allies from winning another election.
But the princess aligning herself with a party allied with Mr Thaksin threatens those plans, correspondents say.
A former general, Mr Prayuth also announced on Friday that he would be running for prime minister in the forthcoming election as a candidate for the pro-military Palang Pracharat party.
Thailand has some of the world’s toughest royal defamation “lese-majeste” laws but technically the princess is not covered by them.
However, the royal family is revered in Thailand and rarely criticised, so there are questions around whether any other candidate would want to challenge a member of the royal family.
Turkey has called on China to close its detention camps following the reported death of a renowned musician from the ethnic Uighur minority.
Abdurehim Heyit is thought to have been serving an eight-year sentence in the Xinjiang region, where a million Uighurs are reportedly being detained.
A statement from Turkey’s foreign ministry said they were being subjected to “torture” in “concentration camps”.
China says the facilities are re-education camps.
The Uighurs are a Muslim Turkic-speaking minority based in the north-west Xinjiang region of China, which has come under intense surveillance by Chinese authorities.
What did Turkey say?
In a statement issued on Saturday, foreign ministry spokesman Hami Aksoy said: “It is no longer a secret that more than a million Uighur Turks exposed to arbitrary arrests are subjected to torture and political brainwashing” in prisons, adding that those not detained were “under great pressure”.
“The reintroduction of concentration camps in the 21st century and the systematic assimilation policy of Chinese authorities against the Uighur Turks is a great embarrassment for humanity,” Mr Aksoy said.
He also said the reports of Heyit’s death “further strengthened the Turkish public’s reaction to the serious human rights violations in Xinjiang” and called on UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres “to take effective steps to end the human tragedy” there.
China’s hidden camps
Beijing claims that the detention camps in Xinjiang are “vocational education centres” designed to help rid the region of terrorism.
Speaking last October, the top Chinese official in Xinjiang, Shohrat Zakir, said “trainees” in the camps were grateful for the opportunity to “reflect on their mistakes”.
Rights groups say Muslims are being detained indefinitely without charge for infractions like refusing to give a DNA sample, speaking in a minority language, or arguing with officials.
What do we know about Heyit’s fate?
Amnesty International said it was very concerned about reports of his death, which has not been officially confirmed.
Heyit was a celebrated player of the Dutar, a two-stringed instrument that is notoriously hard to master. At one time, he was venerated across China. He studied music in Beijing and later performed with national arts troupes.
But investigators now say the pilot was ranting to crew members and even smoking in the cockpit, due to stress.
Nepal’s Accident Investigation Commission said in its report that the captain of US-Bangla Airlines flight BS211 was “very much emotionally disturbed and stressed” because a female colleague, who was not on board the plane, had “questioned his reputation” as a good flight instructor.
The 52-year-old pilot was released from the Bangladeshi Air Force in 1993 because of depression, the report says, but was later declared fit to fly civilian aircraft.
Recent medical reports had not mentioned any symptoms.
Investigators say the pilot’s vocal pitch, and the language he was using “indicated that he was agitated and experiencing high levels of stress” even when speaking to ground control in Dhaka before take-off.
According to the black box voice recorder and reports from surviving passengers, the pilot smoked in the cockpit and “engaged in unnecessary, unprofessional and lengthy conversation even in the critical phase” of the flight.
“This state of mind with high degree of stress and emotional state might have led him to all the procedural lapses,” the report says. “This, together with the failure on the part of both the crew to follow the standard operating procedure at the critical stage of the flight, contributed to the loss of situational awareness.”
It adds that the 25-year-old first officer may have been reluctant to be more assertive during the final approach and landing because of the captain’s experience and authority.
Because they had lost “situational awareness”, the crew failed to realise the flight had deviated from its intended path until it was too late.
They missed the runway at Kathmandu’s Tribhuvan International Airport, and ended up flying in an incorrect position in the dangerous mountainous terrain.
“Finally, when the crew sighted the runway, they were very low and too close to [it] and not properly aligned,” the report says, adding that the landing attempt should have been aborted.
Instead the pilot “forced it to land while in a turn”. The plane quickly skidded off the runway and through a fence, rolling down a slope into a grassy field where it was engulfed in flames.